German Council on Foreign Relations

Strict and Uniform: Improving EU Sanctions Enforcement

For as long as the EU has been using sanctions as a foreign policy instrument, countering violations has been a challenge. With the EU rapidly expanding the breadth and depth of its sanctions, its ­institutions and member states must find ways to ensure stricter and more uniform enforcement to deter violations, enhance efficiency, and ensure a more level playing field for economic actors. The stakes are high: the success of the EU’s response to Russia’s military aggression hinges largely on effective sanctions, and the long-term legitimacy of the tool itself depends on its enforcement.

Dr. Kim B. Olsen
Simon Fasterkjær Kjeldsen
Policy Brief

Stronger Against Russia

Finland and Sweden joining NATO will strengthen the alliance—and give a boost to the inner-NATO partnership of Northern and Eastern European members. Unlike many in Western Europe, the newcomers fully share Poland and the Baltic states’ threat perception of Vladimir Putin’s Russia.

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Berlin’s Summer of Discontent

As Germany braces itself for the tough months ahead, its squabbling politicians need to get a grip and focus on what really matters most: ensuring that Ukraine wins.

Berlin Cable
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Dossier EN: Russia's War Against Ukraine
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Dossier: Russia’s War Against Ukraine

Russia’s attack on Ukraine on February 24, violating international law, shocked the global community and brought war to Europe – along with fears of a nuclear escalation. Europe and its allies are responding with tough sanctions against Russia in the areas of finance, energy, and technology. In a sudden change of course, the German government has approved arms deliveries that it had previously rejected. While international appeals for a ceasefire are being made to Russia’s President Vladimir Putin, one thing is already clear: the European security order as we knew it no longer exists. The German government’s radical U-turn in security and defense policy is only one facet of that.

This dossier provides an overview of DGAP’s diverse expertise and activities on the conflict. See below for statements on current developments, in-depth analyses on how it could have come to this, and recommendations for action to the German government, as well as numerous interviews and high-profile discussion panels.

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